Business organizations involve complex interactions of economic and social forces. We observe and analyze organizations using a combination of economics, ethics, sociology and systems theory.



Market analysis and competitive advantage

Analysing the business domain - Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
Analysing the portfolio - Boston Box
Delivering value - Porter’s Value Chain

Organisational behaviour and culture

What is organisational behaviour?
Organisational effectiveness and the Balanced Scorecard
Understanding and analysing culture
  • Organisational Cultural Types (Deal and Kennedy; Handy)
  • International Cultures (Hofstede)
  • The Cultural Web

Group formation


Groups and group dynamics

Formal and informal groups
  • Groups and group tasks
  • Characteristics of formal groups
  • Homan’s theory of group formation
  • Tuckman and Jensen’s theory of group development
  • Characteristics of informal groups
  • Social networks

Principles of organisational structure


Organisation structuring
  • Elements of organisation structure
  • The six Structure Levels
  • The Leavitt Diamond

Types of jobs
  • Work specialisation
  • Flat and tall hierarchies
  • Span of control

Line, staff and functional relationships

Formalisation of rules and procedures

Centralisation v decentralisation
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages

Operating models


Organisation structures and their characteristics
  • Functional
  • Divisional – product or service/ geography/ customer
  • Matrix
  • Team-based – cross functional/ project

Organisational boundaries
  • Boundaryless organisations
  • Outsourcing
  • Offshoring
  • Hollow organisation structures
  • Modular organisation structures
  • Virtual organisations
  • Collaborations and strategic alliances